Trafalgar Day! Here’s The Story.

The Battle of Trafalgar


The Battle of Trafalgar was fought on the 21st of October 1805 off Cape Trafalgar on the Spanish coast, between the combined fleets of Spain and France and the Royal Navy. It was the last great sea action of the period and its significance to the outcome of the war in Europe is still debated by historians.

The Chase
The battle itself was the culmination of a long campaign. After the Treaty of Amiens Europe was at peace for 14 months. Many ships in the Royal Navy were paid off and the British returned to their peace time activities. But across the Channel in France Napoleon was planning the next stage of his domination of Europe. He realised that if war broke out again then the Royal Navy would blockade French and continental ports as they had done before and French overseas trade would be crippled. So he planned to invade England and free the seas for French trade. He ordered the building of a fleet of invasion barges and the Grand Army was moved to the Pas de Calais area.
But to get the army across safely the French fleet would need to control the English Channel. To this end he tried to engineer a meeting of his fleets so they could control the sealanes, and protect his invasion barges. He gave orders for the fleets in Toulon, Brest and Ferrol to break out of their blockaded ports.

After an aborted attempt Admiral Villeneuve eventually managed to evade Nelson, blockading him in Toulon, and sailed for the West Indies on March 30th. According to Napoleons plan to meet up with Ganteaume ( who was blockaded in Brest ) , and then to sail back to Europe and with the Rochefort, Ferrol and Brest Squadrons ‘procure our superiority before Boulogne for some days’.
When Nelson was told that the French fleet had sailed he assumed they were heading for Egypt, so he sent his ships off to the South East. When he discovered his mistake he set off in pursuit of Villeneuve. Villeneuve picked up Admiral Gravina and the Spanish fleet from Cadiz, and sailed for Martinique.

Nelson discovered that Villeneuve had sailed out of the Med and resumed the chase on the 10th May across the Atlantic to the West Indies. Eventually following the French and Spanish fleet back again to Europe. Villeneuve waited for Ganteaume to join him. But Ganteaume failed to break the British blockade, so Villeneuve sailed back for Ferrol.
He encountered Calders squadron of 15 battleships off Cape Finisterre on 22nd of July. They fought an abortive action in poor visabilty. Calder captured two French ships, and several of the British ships were damaged. Calder failed to press home the action, for which he was severely criticized.
(After Calder joined up with Nelsons fleet he was allowed to sail back to England on the Prince of Wales in an attempt to clear his name at a court martial. The Prince of Wales was a powerful 98 gun ship, and Nelson could ill afford to lose it.)

Relentless Chase, by Dr Mike Haywood 

More images from Mike Haywood 

Villeneuve, unable to reach Ferrol, sailed for Cadiz, but bad weather forced him to to run into Vigo. From there Napoleon ordered him to sail for the Straits of Dover. Decres, the French chief minister of marine, whose confidence in the invasion project had never been high, wrote the orders, stating that Villeneuve was to sail for the Channel, unless the state of the fleet was such as to mitigate against this, in which case he was to sail to Cadiz.
On August the 13th the Combined Fleet of 29 battleships sailed westwards, Villeneuves’ initial intention was unclear. But after picking up intelligence from passing merchantmen and sighting some British ships in the distance Villeneuve decided to head for Cadiz. He arrived there on August 20th.
Nelson arrived off Cadiz to join Collingwoods’ fleet on September 28th and ordered his frigates, under Captain Blackwood, to watch Cadiz while he cruised 50 miles offshore with the rest of the fleet, hoping to draw the Combined Fleet out.

During the course of the summer Napoleon, despairing of bringing his fleets together, had abandoned his invasion plans for England and had turned his attention to Austria. The British had sent a small army under General Craig to Sicily to threaten Napoleons southern flank and to support the Russians. To try and guard Italy and his operations in Austria, Napoleon ordered Villeneuve to sail back into the Mediterranean. He had also decided to replace Villeneuve with Admiral Rosily . On September 27th Villeneuve received his orders to sail back into the Med for Naples, to support a landing of 4000 troops there. Troops designed to counter Craigs small force.

The Battle
When Villeneuve decided to sail from Cadiz his plan was for Magon to sail out with his squadron first and capture or drive off the British frigates. On October 19th and a fair wind for leaving Cadiz blowing Villenueve hoisted the order for ships to sail, There was some confusion amongst the fleets captains over whether this order was just for Magon to sail, the frigates or the whole fleet. As the fleet set sail the breeze died away and only seven battle ships and three frigates made it out of the harbour. The wind was too light to let them chase off the British frigates. Villeneuve was forced to order the rest of the fleet to anchor for the night.
The British frigate Sirius (opens in a new window)made the signal 370, ‘Enemy’s ships are coming out of port’, which was repeated along the chain of ships until it reached the main fleet. Nelson then signaled the fleet for ‘general chase south-east’, his plan was to steer for the Straits of Gibraltar and prevent the Combined Fleet from sailing into the Mediterranean.
On October 20th the rest of the Combined Fleet got under sail and set course for the south-east. Because Nelson had reacted quickly to the signal 370, the British fleet reached the entrance to the Strait before the French and Spanish fleet had left Cadiz. So the British fleet retraced its steps back to the north-west.

The Nelson Touch
As the British Fleet had waited for the Combined Fleet to sail from Cadiz Nelson had asked his captains to come on board the Victory and had explained his plan of attack. The ships were to form two columns, with Nelson in command of one and Collingwood the other, and sail at the centre and rear of the enemy line of battle so as to bring the British ships into close action and cut off the van of the Combined Fleet, which would then take time to get back into the action. Nelson wrote a detailed memorandum explaining his plan on the 9th October, although this was not stricly adheared to in the battle. Nelson reported that his captains were pleased with this innovative plan.

October 21st

British Line of Battle
Weather Column Lee Column
  • Victory
  • Temeraire
  • Neptune
  • Leviathan
  • Conqueror
  • Agamemnon
  • Britannia
  • Ajax
  • Orion
  • Minotaur
  1. Spartiate

  • Royal Sovereign
  • Bellisle
  • Colossus
  • Mars
  • Tonnant
  • Bellerophon
  • Achille
  • Polyphemus
  • Revenge
  • Swiftsure
  • Defence
  • Thunderer
  • Defiance
  • Prince
  1. Dreadnought

Villeneuve sailed slowly in the light winds to the south-east. He had in fact guessed what form Nelsons attack would take, but had failed to specify any defence to his captains. The Combined Fleet sailed in a line with the Neptuno in the rear and the San Juan de Nepomuceno commanded by Commodore Churraca in the van. Admiral Gravina was in the Principe de Asturias and Admiral Villeneuve sailed in the Bucentaure. Gravinas’ squadron of observation should have been sailing to windward of the Combined fleet , to come to the aid of any part of the line threatened by the British, but had in fact taken up station at the van.
Shortly after dawn the French frigate Hermione spotted the British fleet to windward in the west and signaled to Villeneuve. Villeneuve could have sailed on for Gibraltar, but instead deciding not to fight off a lee shore, he thought to try and return to Cadiz. So at 8 a.m. he ordered the fleet to wear, an order which was finally completed by 10 a.m. The Combined fleet now had to reform the line of battle, sailing in the opposite direction. The variable quality of the Combined Fleets crews now began to show, the ships found it difficult in the light wind to find their position in the line of battle, and the line sagged way to leeward in the middle. Villeneuve now saw that Gravinas’ squadron was out of position and signalled him to keep to windward, but it was too late. The French and Spanish captains could clearly see the British ships advancing on the centre of their line in two columns, and some like Commodore Churruca realised the danger, that the van of the Combined Fleet would be cut off and out of the battle. Churruca thought that Villeneuve should order the leading ships to turn now and bear down on the British.

On board the Victory Nelson ordered Lieutenant Pasco to make a signal to the fleet “Mr Pasco, I wish to say to the Fleet ‘England confides that every man will do his duty'”. Pasco asked Nelson if he could substitute the word ‘expects’ for ‘confides’ as that was in the telegraphic vocabulary whereas confides would have to be spelt, Nelson agreed and the signal was run up Victorys’ halyards. Changing the wording subtly changed the meaning, and the signal caused confusion on some ships, with sailors saying they would always do their duty and didn’t have to be asked.
One final signal was run up on the flagship, the telegraphic flag and then numbers one and six ‘Engage the enemy more closely’. List of signals made at Trafalgar.
Soon after this the first shots were fired by the Combined fleet at the Royal Sovereign as she came within range of the Fougueux. The Royal Sovereign opened fire at 12 noon, and fifteen minutes later the first of the enemy ships opened fire on theVictory at long range.

Close Action
As the Victory closed on the enemy line, Captain Hardy decided to take his ship past the rear of the Bucentaure. The enemy shot had already been cutting into the ship for some minutes and many men were already dead or wounded including Nelson’s secretary, John Scott, and eight Marines stationed on the poop deck. Seeing this Nelson ordered the Captain of Marines, Charles Adair, to disperse his men about the ship, a far reaching order in that the Marines would have dealt with French sharpshooters, and perhaps saved Nelsons life.
Nelson seems to have been sure he was going to die in this battle, many times saying final farewells to friends and desperately trying to ensure that Lady Hamilton and his daughter Horatia would be looked after when he died. He certainly took no steps to avoid death, Captain Blackwood suggested he moved his flag to the Euryalus to direct the battle from there, but he refused. And several people were concerned that he was wearing his stars of honour on his coat, making him an obvious target.
On the fo’c’sle the Bosun William Willmet waited beside the larboard 68 pounder carronade, one of Victory’s two ‘smashers’ as they were known. (Image of Victorys’ 68 pounder carronade). It had been loaded with a round shot and a keg of 500 musket balls, and as Victory passed within touching distance of Bucentaure’s stern, he fired the carronade into her, raking the French ship from ene to end and mowing down the sailors manning their guns. As the Victory continued to sail past, her lower deck guns opened fire as one by one they came to bear.

As Victory cleared the French ship she came within range of the Neptune which fired her broadside into the Victory damaging the foremast and bowsprit. Hardy ordered the helm over to bringVictory alongside the Redoubtable which was on her starboard side, and as the guns came to bear she fired her starboard broadside into the French ship.
close action

The Victory and the Redoubtable crashed together and their yards locked. Redoubtable shut most of her gunports to prevent boarding and the French marines in the rigging threw grenades and fired down onto the deck of the Victory . At about 1.15 pm as Nelson and Hardy walked on the quarter deck a musket ball fired from Redoubtable struck Nelson in the top of the shoulder and smashed into his spine. He knew straight away that the wound would be fatal, and as he was carried down to the orlop deck he covered his face with a handkerchief. As they reached the cockpit, wounded sailors waiting for treatment, recognising Nelson, called for the surgeon William Beatty.

close action 2 Fighting continued on the decks above and as Redoubtable was bombarded by Victory ‘s guns the Temeraire closed on her starboard side and fired into her. The three ships locked together and theRedoubtable was slowly pounded into submission.

At the head of the lee column the Royal Sovereign had been engaging the Santa Ana and the Fougueux for some 30 minutes alone, having sailed into the enemy line well ahead of the rest of the division. Collingwood had ordered the lee column to form on the larboard line of bearing, so his ships were not in line like Nelsons but approaching on a broad front ( see main diagram) . At this end of the Combined Fleets line of battle the ships were closed up in a loose formation, not in a line. As the other ships of Collingwoods line joined the battle they were presented with a confused array of ships.

The battle continued in the dying wind and, as their masts and sails were shot away, the ships of both fleets drifted slowly about each other, looking for targets through the clouds of smoke. The Mars lost most of her sails and rigging and swung uncontrollably in the swell. Captain Duff, leaning over the side to try and spot the enemy ships was decapitated by a round shot, and the Mars was raked by several French ships including the Pluton.
Two hours after the start of the battle, the Combined fleets van under Admiral Dumanoir finally wore or tacked and made back for the battle. Four ships, including Dumanoirs Formidable sailed to windward of the British and exchanged shots with them as they passed, then sailed away from the battle. Three ships sailed straight for Cadiz and only the Intrepide and the Neptuno sailed to Villeneuves aid. The Intrepide was engaged by several British ships, and was singled out for her bravery in the face of overwhelming odds by several of the British captains.
Slowly the British ships gained the upper hand as one by one the ships of the Combined Fleet struck their colours or sailed away from the battle. Captain Hardy reported to Nelson that the battle was won, ‘Thank God I have done my duty’, were his last words, and he died at 4.30pm.

The gloss of the victory was taken off for the British ships with the news of Nelsons death. It is hard now to appreciate the effect of this news on the ships crews and on the nation as a whole, although Nelson is still regarded as a national hero in Britain, in 1805 he was THE national hero, and to lose him at the moment of his greatest victory was a bitter blow.
Nelson himself would have been bitter had he known the treatment his beloved Lady Hamilton and his daughter would get from a grateful nation. They were almost completely ignored. Instead the country decided to make Nelson’s brother, William, an earl, and voted him £99,000 with an annual pension of £5,000 a year. Frances, still formally Nelson’s wife, was granted £2,000 a year. Emma and Horatia got nothing. Without the pension from a grateful nation that Nelson had foreseen for her, and always famous for her extravagance, Emma eventually sank into poverty, even spending some time in prison for debt. After her release she went to live with Horatia in Calais and died there in January 1815.

Of the Combined Fleet, Bucentaure, Algeciras, Swiftsure, Intrepide, Aigle, Berwick, Achille, Redoubtable, Fougueux ( French), Santissima Trinidad, Santa Anna, Argonauta, Bahama, San Augustino, San Ildefonso, San Juan de Nepomuceno, and Monarca ( Spanish) were taken by the British. Redoubtable sank, Achille blew up, San Augustino and Intrepide burned, the British scuttled Santissima Trinidad and Argonauta, and in the gale that followed the battle Monarca, Fougueux, Aigle, and Berwick were wrecked.

Victory in Storm, by Dr Mike Haywood
On the 23rd of October a sortie by French Commodore Julien Cosmao from Cadiz with Pluton, Indomptable, Neptuno, Rayo, and San Francisco de Asis attempted to recapture some of the British prizes. Santa Anna and Algeciras were recovered, but Neptuno, Indomptable, and San Francisco de Asis were wrecked and Rayo was taken by the Donegal and then wrecked.
On the 3rd of November, Admiral Strachan, with Caesar 80, Hero 74, Courageux 74, Namur 74, and four frigates defeated and captured the force of four French ships which had escaped at Trafalgar under Dumanoir: Formidable 80, Duguay-Trouin 74, Mont Blanc 74, and Scipion 74. All four are taken into the Royal Navy, with Formidable renamed Brave, Duguay-Trouin renamed Implacable, and the other two keeping their names. The Victory was towed into Gibraltar her masts and sails shot to pieces. The casualties were high, as might be expected in such a close fought action. The British lost 449 men killed and 1241 wounded (some of whom subsequently died), the French and Spanish fleets lost 4408 men killed and 2545 wounded, ( figures are from Lewis ‘A Social History of the Navy’).
The ultimate outcome of the victory was to secure the supremacy of the British navy on the high seas for the next hundred years, and the end to any threat of invasion from France. It lead Napoleon to his Continental strategy, and possibly to his disastrous campaign against the Russians in 1812.

Battle of Trafalgar Casualty List

Ship Guns Commander Killed/Wounded
Victory 100 Capt. Thomas Masterman Hardy 57/102
Temeraire 98 Capt. Eliab Harvey 47/76
Neptune 98 Capt Thomas Francis Freemantle 10/34
Leviathan 74 Capt Henry William Bayntun 4/22
Britannia 100 Capt Charles Bullen 10/42
Conquerer 74 Capt Israel Pellew 3/9
Africa 64 Capt Henry Digby 18/44
Agamemnon 64 Capt Sir Edward Berry 2/8
Ajax 74 Lieut John Pilford 2/9
Orion 74 Capt Edward Codrington 1/23
Minotaur 74 Capt Charles John Moore Mansfield 3/22
Spartiate 74 Capt Sir Francis Laforey 3/20
Royal Sovereign 100 Capt Edward Rotheram 47/94
Belleisle 74 Capt William Hargood 33/93
Mars 74 Capt George Duff 29/69
Tonnant 80 Capt Charles Tyler 26/50
Bellerophon 74 Capt John Cooke 27/123
Colossus 74 Capt James Nichol Morris 46/160
Achille 74 Capt Richard King 13/59
Dreadnought 98 Capt John Conn 7/26
Polyphemus 64 Capt Robert Redmill 2/4
Revenge 74 Capt Robert Moorsom 28/51
Swiftsure 74 Capt William Gordon Rutherford 9/8
Defiance 74 Capt Philip Charles Durham 17/53
Thunderer 74 Lieut John Stockham 4/12
Defence 74 Capt George Hope 7/29
Prince 98 Capt Richard Grindall
Euryalis 36 Capt Hon Henry Blackwood
Naiad 38 Capt Thomas Dundas
Phoebe 36 Capt Hon Thomas Bladen Capell
Sirius 36 Capt William Prowse
Pickle 10 Lieut John Richards La Penotiere
Entreprenante 8 Lieut Robert Benjamin Young


Joe Scarborough on Media Bias

JOE SCARBOROUGH (CO-HOST): What was [Trump’s] exact quote?

MIKA BRZEZINSKI (CO-HOST): He said I will leave you in suspense.

WILLIE GEIST (CO-HOST): He said I will look at it at the time and keep you in suspense.

HAROLD FORD JR.: So that means he is not willing to say I will accept the outcome.

SCARBOROUGH: No, what that means is he will look at it at the time. I love everybody saying — I woke up to these screaming headlines saying, “Donald Trump will not respect election results.” He actually said I will look at it at the time. I’ll see.

FORD JR.: Has there ever been a presidential candidate to say that?

SCARBOROUGH: If there are voting irregularities, then any presidential candidate, anybody —

MIKE BARNICLE: What would you have said? What would your response be to that question?

SCARBOROUGH: I’d say yeah, I’ll certainly respect the outcome of the election. I of course would want to make sure that’s fair. I will want to make sure that it’s fair, it’s on the up and up.

BARNICLE: Well, he didn’t say that.

SCARBOROUGH: Yeah but you know what? This is an example the media got something they can absolutely freak out about and claim that he is an agent of Vladimir Putin and destroying democracy in America. And it’s just another example of the media having to find a little phrase and freak out. When as a Republican I have listened to Democrats talk about the only two times we won the White House in like 800 years that we stole both elections. I had to sit through Fahrenheit 911 and a lady was sobbing violently behind me on the Upper West Side about the election being stolen from George Bush and I patted her halfway through. I go, it’s all right, it’s all right, ma’am. It’s all right. It’s all a lie anyway. Democrats have been whining for 16 years, they are still writing articles about how Bush stole the elections in 2000 and 2004. So this holier than though attitude about, “this is the first time anyone has suggested that the election is not a sacrosanct process,” it’s a joke. So you guys bathe in that hypocrisy if you want to, I’d just like to hear how the debate went. Go ahead, bathe.

The FBI Has Figured It Out! Hurrah

This is beyond parody. The FBI issued this press release today. Read the Highlighted portion for the essence of this and think of anyone else who may have done the same thing. 

Former Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Pleads Guilty to Federal Felony in Leak Investigation

Retired General James E. Cartwright, 67, of Gainesville, Virginia, pleaded guilty to making false statements in connection with the unauthorized disclosure of classified information. The guilty plea was entered in the District of Columbia.

The announcement was made by Acting Assistant Attorney General for National Security Mary B. McCord, U.S. Attorney Rod J. Rosenstein for the District of Maryland and Assistant Director in Charge Paul M. Abbate of the FBI’s Washington Field Office.

“General Cartwright violated the trust that was placed in him by willfully providing information that could endanger national security to individuals not authorized to receive it and then lying to the FBI about his actions,” said Acting Assistant Attorney General McCord. “With this plea, he will be held accountable.”

“People who gain access to classified information after promising not to disclose it must be held accountable when they willfully violate that promise,” said U.S. Attorney Rosenstein. “We conducted a thorough and independent investigation included collecting tens of thousands of documents through subpoenas, search warrants and document requests, and interviewing scores of current and former government employees. The evidence showed that General Cartwright disclosed classified information without authorization to two reporters and lied to federal investigators. As a result, he stands convicted of a federal felony offense and faces a potential prison sentence.”

“Today, General Cartwright admitted to making false statements to the FBI concerning multiple unauthorized disclosures of classified information that he made to reporters,” said Assistant Director in Charge Abbate. “This was a careful, rigorous, and thorough multi-year investigation by special agents who, together with federal prosecutors, conducted numerous interviews, to including Cartwright. The FBI will continue to take all necessary and appropriate steps to thoroughly investigate individuals, no matter their position, who undermine the integrity of our justice system by lying to federal investigators.”

According to his plea agreement, Cartwright is a retired U.S. Marine Corps four-star general who served as the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from Aug. 31, 2007, to Aug. 3, 2011, and as Commander of the U.S. Strategic Command from 2004 to 2007. During that time, Cartwright held a top secret security clearance with access to sensitive compartmented information (SCI).

Cartwright signed more than 36 non-disclosure agreements related to Department of Defense programs. The forms explain that the recipient is obligated by law and regulation not to disclose classified information without authorization. The forms also contain warnings that any breach of the agreement may violate federal criminal law. In addition, Cartwright received annual training about handling classified information.

On Sept. 1, 2011, Cartwright retired from the U.S. Marine Corps. Upon his retirement, Cartwright maintained his top secret clearance. The clearance enabled him to engage in consulting and private employment, including sitting on a special committee of the board of directors of a defense contractor, which oversaw the company’s classified U.S. government contracts.

At the time of his retirement, Cartwright again signed a “Classified Information Non-Disclosure Agreement,” which included warnings “that unauthorized disclosure…by me could cause damage or irreparable injury to the United States or could be used to advantage by a foreign nation.”

Between January and June 2012, Cartwright disclosed classified information to two reporters without authorization. Some of the information disclosed to the reporters was classified at the top secret level. Each reporter included the classified information in published articles. In addition, the classified information that Cartwright communicated to one reporter was included in a book.

FBI agents interviewed Cartwright on Nov. 2, 2012. During the interview, Cartwright gave false information to the interviewing agents, including falsely stating that he did not provide or confirm classified information to the first reporter and was not the source of any of the quotes and statements in that reporter’s book. In addition, Cartwright falsely stated that he had never discussed a particular country with the second reporter, when in fact, Cartwright had confirmed classified information about that country in an email to the reporter.

Cartwright faces a maximum sentence of five years in prison for making false statements to federal investigators. The maximum statutory sentence is prescribed by Congress and is provided here for informational purposes. The sentencing of the defendant will be determined by the court. U.S. District Judge Richard J. Leon has scheduled sentencing for January 17, 2017.

Acting Assistant Attorney General McCord and U.S. Attorney Rosenstein commended the FBI for its work in the investigation and thanked Assistant U.S. Attorneys Leo J. Wise and Deborah A. Johnston of the District of Maryland, Trial Attorney Elizabeth Cannon of the National Security Division’s Counterintelligence and Export Control Section and National Security Chief Harvey Eisenberg of the U.S. Attorney’s Office, who are handling the prosecution.

Media Polling Fully Exposed – About That NBC/WSJ Clinton +11 Point Poll….

Esarly in my business career, I was involved in audience research Naively, I thought you just asked random people questions, and, when the sample was large enough, you would get an accurate view of public opinion.   

Then a pollster asked by who we should ask? That’s when I discovered how to influence the outcome of the “research” to get the answer you found most useful.

Here is a prime example of how to rig a poll for the desired answer. First thing, hire a pollster who is working for the candidate you want to support and pay him very well.  

This is going on now in our presidential campaign to a degree I’ve never seen before.  


The Real Battle, is The Battle For Your Mind Researchers and political analysts frequent CTH because we bring you hard, factual, and fully cited research enabling you to make up your own mind about…

Source: Media Polling Fully Exposed – About That NBC/WSJ Clinton +11 Point Poll….

Trump’s Recovery? Here Is The Way And It Will Work

Donald Trump made some insulting and vulgar comments in 2005 while on the set of some TV show. His comments were recorded on video tape and played today to his considerable embarrassment. Republicans have turned on him. Kelly Ayotte says she’s writing in Mike Pence tor president on her ballot, Paul Ryan canceled a campaign event with Trump. Democrats rally around their candidates, like Bill Clinton. Remember he settled a sexual harassment lawsuit for a little under $1,00,000 in 1998 ($1,500,000 today). He was also engaging an intern in illicit sexual activity in his office while running for a second term and got elected. His peccadillos over time include actual rape.

The reason I mention Bill’s behavior is to point out that Trump can survive this event and move on to win the election. This event has actually given him the opportunity to change the election dynamic and the electorate’s negative view of him.

Here’s what he says tomorrow before the debate so it can be brought again during the debate.
“I’m deeply embarrassed by the comments in made in 2005, They are crude, vulgar and demeaning of women. I have injured my sons and daughters, and the love of my life, Melania. I have also injured the American people. In the year of this campaign for President, I have come to love the American people more than I can imagine. Where I began the campaign fearful of the continuing damage being done by a Democratic administration, and my desire to improve our great country, my deeply felt affection for all of the people of this great country has altered me for all time.

I admit my failings, my offensive language, but I also admit my commitment to the American people. During this campaign, I have undergone a moral change and for that, I am blessed. My behavior has been horrible, it was show business stuff, and it has no place in American politics, and it will not occur again.

The videos that exist from earlier times show a flawed person  My engagement with the American people during this campaign has altered my soul. I am committed to them, to my children, to Melania and to being a competent, considerate and humble President of the United States.

Hillary “Shocked!” By Trump’s Sex Talk… But Here’s Video of Hillary Threatening Sex Assault Victims in 1998

The Clinton campaign (Washington Post) released audio on Friday of Donald Trump talking about hitting on a hot woman in 2005.

Hillary Clinton tweeted out that she was “shocked!” in response to the audio!

Really, Hillary?
This is the same woman who threatened Bill Clinton’s accusers in 1998.
hillary threats

It is commonly believed by Clinton victims that Hillary was behind the siccing of private investigators on the many women who accused her husband of rape, sexual assault or infidelity in the 1990s.

Hillary Clinton revealed her hidden hand when she menacingly issued a clear warning of intimidation to her husband’s accusers (and those who would pursue their charges) on the nationally broadcast Today Show in early 1998 in the days after the Monica Lewinsky scandal broke.

The Today Show interview with Matt Lauer on January 27, 1998 is famous for Hillary’s claim that a “vast right-wing conspiracy” was behind the allegations of an affair between her husband President Clinton and White House intern Monica Lewinsky. (Transcript source.)

“This is—the great story here for anybody willing to find it and write about it and explain it is this vast right-wing conspiracy that has been conspiring against my husband since the day he announced for president. A few journalists have kind of caught on to it and explained it. But it has not yet been fully revealed to the American public. And actually, you know, in a bizarre sort of way, this may do it.”

Later in the interview, Hillary bluntly issued her threat:

“I think we’re going to find some other things. And I think that when all of this is put into context, and we really look at the people involved here, look at their motivations and look at their backgrounds, look at their past behavior, some folks are going to have a lot to answer for.”

Here’s the video—–
Video from Today Show video hosted by C-SPAN.

The Black Sox Scandal Review.

Black Sox scandal: Chicago throws 1919 World Series


© St. Petersburg Times, published December 22, 1999

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The 1919 Chicago White Sox had Eddie Cicotte and Lefty Williams, superb pitchers. And slick-fielding Chick Gandil at first base and workhorse Buck Weaver at third. And outfielder Shoeless Joe Jackson.

The White Sox were, to put it simply, the best team money could buy.

And it got bought.

Led by Gandil, who rounded up Cicotte, Williams, Weaver, Jackson, shortstop Swede Risberg, outfielder Oscar Happy Felsch and utility player Fred McMullin, Chicago threw the 1919 World Series to the Cincinnati Reds.

There was good reason the Sox were susceptible to the lure of quick money. They were among the American League’s best players but Charles Comiskey paid most of them no more than the worst. The promised bonus for winning the 1917 pennant was a case of cheap champagne. Before the 1919 season, Comiskey promised Cicotte an extra $10,000 if he won 30 games. When Cicotte reached 29, Comiskey benched him. Player resentment was rampant.

On Sept. 18, the World Series fix was hatched in Gandil’s room in Boston’s Hotel Buckminster when he summoned bookmaker-gambler Joseph “Sport” Sullivan and told him: “I think we can put it in the bag.” Gandil asked for $80,000 (later raised to $100,000). He approached the bitter Cicotte, who said he’d go along for $10,000 up front. Gandil also sold the idea to Williams and Risberg; McMullin overheard Gandil and asked in. Weaver apparently sat in on some meetings but refused to participate.

Jackson insisted that when Gandil offered him $10,000, and even when he doubled it, he refused to go along. Gandil supposedly told Jackson to take it or leave it because the fix was in anyway. Gandil may have lied and said Shoeless Joe was part of the scheme, essential since Jackson was the star of the team.

Gandil was told he’d be paid before the first game. But Sullivan didn’t have that kind of money. He brought in other gamblers and, through them, Arnold Rothstein. It was said he would bet on anything he could fix. Rothstein provided most of the money.

The night before Game 1 in the best-of-9 Series (an experiment ended after three seasons), Cicotte found $10,000 under a pillow in his hotel room. None of the others was paid up front. The next day, Cicotte’s second pitch hit Reds leadoff batter Morrie Rath, the signal that the fix was in.

Cicotte was hammered 9-1 by the Reds. Despite not getting the money promised for losing Game 1 — they were told it was out on bets, the players agreed to throw Game 2. Williams lost 4-2. That night, Gandil demanded the $40,000 he and his teammates were owed. He was given $10,000. The players felt betrayed and began to think about playing to win.

They won the third game 3-0 when rookie Dickie Kerr pitched a three-hitter. Before Game 4, Sullivan came up with $20,000 and promised $20,000 more if Chicago lost. Gandil split the $20,000 evenly among Risberg, Felsch, Williams and Jackson. ( McMullin and Weaver would never see a dime.) Cicotte lost 2-0; Williams lost 5-0.

Once again the promised $20,000 never appeared. The conspirators decided they’d been lied to enough and played to win, beating the Reds 5-4 and 4-1 in Games 6 and 7.

Rothstein took matters into his own hands. A thug was dispatched to tell Williams, the Game 8 starter, that something would happen to him — and maybe to his wife — if he lasted the first inning. The terrified Williams gave up four hits in one-third of an inning; the Reds won 10-5 to take the World Series.

There were newspaper stories suggesting the games had been fixed. The owners privately feared it was true but publicly denied it. Jackson, conscience stricken, tried to see Comiskey to ask what to do with his $5,000. Comiskey refused to see him. Then Jackson sent him a letter saying games might have been fixed. Comiskey never replied.

In September 1920, a Cook County grand jury in Chicago was looking into reports that the Cubs had thrown a three-game series to the Phillies that year. The investigation spread to the 1919 White Sox.

At the same time, with a disillusioned public questioning the game’s integrity, the owners dissolved their three-man National Commission that had run the game, hired Kenesaw Mountain Landis as the game’s first commissioner and gave him virtually unlimited power.

Cicotte and Jackson admitted their roles to the grand jury. Gandil, the ringleader, admitted nothing. All eight players and several gamblers (but not Rothstein) were indicted for conspiracy to defraud the public. All were acquitted for want of evidence after transcripts of Cicotte’s and Jackson’s confessions disappeared from the court files.

The next day, though, Landis barred all eight from organized baseball for life. “Regardless of the verdict of juries,” he said, “no player who throws a ball game, no player that undertakes or promises to throw a ball game, no player that sits in conference with a bunch of crooked players and gamblers where the ways and means of throwing a game are discussed and does not promptly tell his club about it, will ever play professional baseball.”

As for a teary-eyed boy looking up at Jackson and pleading, “Say it ain’t so, Joe,” well, it ain’t so.

“Charley Owens of the Chicago Daily News was responsible for that, but there wasn’t a bit of truth in it,” Jackson said years later. “It was supposed to have happened the day I was arrested in September of 1920, when I came out of the courtroom. There weren’t any words passed between anybody except me and a deputy sheriff. … Nobody else said anything to me. It just didn’t happen, that’s all.”

Information from Times researcher Kitty Bennett, Eight Men Out by Eliot Asinof (Henry Holt & Co.), and Baseball: An illustrated history, by Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns (Alfred A. Knopf), was used in this report.